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Syllabus of Anthropology

The Civil Services Examination offers a vast scope when it comes to any type of high post job filling in the country. Mostly the exam is conducted by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC). 23 posts are available under this single platform examination which is the UPSC examination. To crack this high post-UPSC examination you need to know the details of the Anthropology Optional in Chennai by joining the UPSC coaching center in Chennai as it can be the right one to guide you. 

The top services offered by this exam after choosing Anthropology Optional in Chennai include the following post: – Administrative Service (IAS) and the Indian Police Service (IPS) with other types of posts like Indian Foreign Service (IFS), Indian Revenue Service (IRS), etc. As the service is very vital, there is a need for the right candidate to positively impact the whole country.


Syllabus of Anthropology Paper - I

The syllabus of Anthropology Optional in Chennai for Paper 1 comprises the following concepts:

1.1 Meaning, Scope and Development of Anthropology.

1.2. Main Branches of Anthropology, Its Scope and Relevance: Social-Cultural Anthropology, Archaeological Anthropology, Linguistic Anthropology, Biological Anthropology.

1.3. Relationships of Anthropology with: Medical Sciences, and Humanities, Life & Behavioural Sciences, Earth & Social Sciences.

1.4. Human Evolution and Emergence of Man: Cultural and Biological Factors in Human Evolution, Theories of Organic Evolution, Brief Outline of Terms and Concepts of Evolutionary, Synthetic Theory of Evolution. 

1.5. The Biological Basis of Life: The DNA Structure and Replication, Cell, Protein Synthesis, Gene, Chromosomes, Mutation, and Cell Division.

1.6. Chronology: Relative and Absolute Dating methods, Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology, Cultural Evolution – Broad Outlines of Prehistoric Cultures: Paleolithic, Neolithic, Chalcolithic, Mesolithic, Iron Age, Copper-Bronze Age.

1.7. Characteristics of Primates: Primate Taxonomy; Primate Adaptations; Primate Behaviour; Living Major Primates; Tertiary and Quaternary Fossil Primates; Evolutionary Trend and Primate Taxonomy; Comparative Anatomy of Apes and Man; Skeletal Changes – Erect Posture & Implications.

1.8. Phylogenetic Characteristics, Status, and Geographical Distribution: Homo Erectus: Africa (Paranthropus), Plio-Pleistocene Hominids in East and South Africa – Australopithecines, Asia (Homo Erectus Javanicus, Homo Erectus Pekinensis, Europe (Homo Erectus (Heidelbergensis), Neanderthal Man, Rhodesian Man, Homo Sapiens.

2.1. The Nature of Culture: The Characteristics and Concept of Culture and Civilization; Cultural Relativism vis-a-vis Ethnocentrism.

2.2. The Nature of Society: Concept of Society; Social Groups; Social Institution; and Social Stratification, Society and Culture.

2.3. Family: Definition and Universality; Household and Domestic Groups; Family, Types of Family; Functions of Family; Industrialization and Feminist Movements on Family, Impact of Urbanization.

2.4. Marriage: Definition and Universality; Laws of Marriage (exogamy, endogamy, hypergamy, hypogamy, incest taboo); Functions of Marriage; Type of Marriage (polygamy, group marriage, polyandry, monogamy); Marriage Regulations (prescriptive, preferential, and proscriptive); Marriage Payments (bride wealth and dowry).

2.5. Kinship: Principles and Types of Descent (unilineal, bilateral ambilineal, double); Consanguinity and Affinity; Forms of Descent Groups (clan, phratry, lineage, moiety and kindred); Kinship Terminology (classificatory and descriptive); Filiation & Complementary Filiation; Decent & Alliance, Descent.

3.Political Organization & Social Control: Tribe, Band, Kingdom and State; Chiefdom, Concepts of Authority, Power, and Legitimacy; Law and Justice in Simple Societies, Social Control.

4.Economic Organization: Meaning, Relevance and Scope of Economic Anthropology; Principles Governing Production, Formalist and Substantivist Debate; Distribution and Exchange.

5. Religion: Anthropological Approaches to the Study of Religion (evolutionary, functional and psychological); Monotheism and Polytheism; Sacred and Profane; Forms of Religion in Tribal and Peasant Societies, Myths and Rituals; Religion, Magic and Science Distinguished; Magico-Religious Functionaries.

6. Anthropological Theories: Classical Evolutionism, Historical particularism (Boas) Diffusionism, Structuralism, Functionalism and Structural Functionalism, Culture and Personality, Neo – Evolutionism, Cultural Materialism, Cognitive Theories, Symbolic and Interpretive Theories, Postmodernism in Anthropology.

7. Research Methods in Anthropology: Fieldwork Tradition in Anthropology, Distinction between Method, Methodology and Technique, Analysis, Interpretation and Presentation of Data, Tools of Data Collection. 

8. Culture, Language and Communication: Origin, Nature and Characteristics of Language; Social Context of Language Use, Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication.

9.1. Human Genetics: Application and Methods: Methods for Study of Genetic Principles in Man-Family Study (chromosome and karyo-type analysis, twin study, co-twin method, pedigree analysis, foster child, cytogenetic method,), Biochemical Methods, Immunological Methods, D.N.A. Technology and Recombinant Technologies.

9.2. Mendelian Genetics: (lethal, multifactor, sub-lethal, single factor and polygenic inheritance in man).

9.3. Concept of Genetic Polymorphism and Selection: Hardy-Weinberg Law; Mendelian Population, Causes and Changes. Consanguineous and Non-Consanguineous Mating, Genetic Effect of Consanguineous and Cousin Marriages, Genetic Load.

9.4. Chromosomes and Chromosomal Aberrations in Man, Methodology: Numerical and Structural Aberrations, Sex Chromosomal Aberration, Autosomal Aberrations, Genetic Imprints in Human Disease.

9.5. Race and Racism, Biological Basis of Morphological Variation (Non-Metric and Characters). Racial Traits in Relation to Heredity & Environment; Racial Criteria, Biological Basis of Race Crossing, Racial Classification, and Racial Differentiation in Man.

9.6 Age, Population & Sex Variation as Genetic Marker: ABO, HLA Hp, Rh Blood Groups, Transferring, Gm, Blood Enzymes. Physiological Characteristics – Pulse Rate, Body Fat, Hb Level, Respiratory Functions & Sensory Perceptions in Cultural and Socio-Economic Groups.

9.7. Concepts & Methods (Ecological Anthropology): Biocultural Adaptations – Non-Genetic & Genetic Factors. Man’s Physiological Responses to Environmental Stresses: Cold & Hot Desert, High-Altitude Climate.

9.8. Epidemiological Anthropology: Health and Disease. Nutritional Deficiency Related Diseases, Infectious and Non-Infectious Diseases.

10. Concept of Human Growth and Development:Stages of Growth, Factors Affecting Growth and Development Environmental, Genetic, Nutritional, Biochemical, Cultural, and Socio-Economic, Aging and Senescence, Biological and Chronological Longevity.  

11. Relevance of Menarche, Fertility Patterns & Differentials, Menopause & Other Bio Events to Fertility, Demographic Theories – Social and Cultural, Biological, Biological and Socio-Ecological Factors Influencing Fecundity, Fertility, Natality and Mortality.

12. Applications of Anthropology:Nutritional Anthropology, Anthropology of Sports, Forensic Anthropology, Anthropology in Designing of Defence and Other Equipments, Principles and Methods of Personal Identification and Reconstruction, Applied Human Genetics, DNA Technology in Diseases and Medicine, Cytogenetics and Serogenetics in Reproductive Biology.

UPSC aspirants should prepare for Paper 1 Anthropology Optional in Chennai because it is a vital component of the UPSC exam and can provide civil servants with the necessary tools to engage with the local population effectively, understand their needs, and devise inclusive policies that promote social harmony and development.

Structure of Anthropology Optional Exam

The Indian Administrative Service is the most prestigious post created by the Government of India. When it comes to hierarchy, IAS is the top post when it comes to the other 24 posts like IPS, IFS, etc. IAS is the highest cadre in the Indian administrative service and is also a part of the executive branch. It is one of the high posts among 3 high cadre posts, which got employment through Union Government, State Government, and public sector undertaking.

The examination conducted UPSC examination is to go through a screening test only. The marks procured by the candidates in the Preliminary Examination declared to be qualified for admission to the Main Examination, but anyhow the main examination may not be counted till the final order of merit. The candidates, who attempt the main examination that can be filled up the post about 12 to 13 times by the total number of vacancies commenced every year.

The main examination is conducted every year to evaluate the candidate’s intellectual traits and understanding of the depth of his knowledgeability and wide range of I.Q. The exam comes up with General studies papers 11 to paper V, and only an educated person can answer them without any specialized study.

The total interview is conducted for 275 marks, there is no minimum mark for qualification. The rank of the candidate is determined by the mark obtained in writing and interview a total of the written and interview marks. The rank is determined above the written examination mark plus the interview mark obtained. As per the rank secured, the candidates are given the post accordingly.

Paper – 2

The syllabus of Anthropology Optional in Chennai Nagar for Paper 2 comprises the following concepts:

1.1. Evolution of the Indian Culture & Civilization— Prehistoric, Protohistoric. Harappan, Pre & Post Harappan Cultures. Contributions of the Tribal Cultures.

1.2Paleo—Anthropological Evidences: Siwaliks & Narmada basin (Sivapithecus, Ramapithecus, & Narmada Man).

1.3. Ethno-Archaeology in India: The Concept of Ethno-Archaeology; Survivals & Parallels – Fishing, Foraging, Hunting, Peasant & Pastoral Communities along withArts & Crafts Producing Communities.

2. Demographic Profile of India:Ethnic & Linguistic Elements in the Indian Population & Their Distribution. Indian Population – Factors Influencing Its Growth and Structure.

3.1. The Nature & Structure of Traditional Indian Social System – Purushartha, Varnashram, Karma, Rina and Rebirth.

3.2. Caste System in India— Characteristics and Structure of Varna and Caste, Theories – Origin of Caste System, Dominant Caste, Caste Mobility, Future of Caste System, Jajmani System. Tribe-Caste Continuum.

3.3. Sacred Complex and Nature-Man-Spirit Complex.

3.4. Impact of Jainism, Buddhism, Islam and Christianity of Indian Society.

4. Emergence, Growth, Development in India—Contributions – 18th, 19th and Early 20th Century Scholar-Administrators, Indian Anthropologists to Tribal and Caste Studies.

5.1. Indian Village— Significance of Village Study in India; Indian Village as a Social System; Traditional and Changing Patterns of Settlement and Inter-Caste Relations; Relations in Indian Villages; Agrarian Impact of Globalization on Indian Villages.

5.2. Linguistic and Religious Minorities and Their Political, Social and Economic Status.

5.3. Indigenous & Exogenous Processes: Socio-Cultural Change in Indian Society: Modernization, Sanskritization, Westernization; Inter-play of Little & Great Traditions; Panchayati Raj & Social Change; Media & Social Change.

6.1. Tribal Situation in India – Bio-Genetic Variability, Linguistic & Socio-Economic Characteristics of the Tribal Populations & Their Distribution.

6.2. Problems of the Tribal Communities – Land Alienation, Poor Educational Facilities, Indebtedness, Poverty, Low Literacy, Under-Employment, Unemployment, Health and Nutrition.

6.3 Developmental Projects & Their Impact: Tribal Displacement & Problems of Rehabilitation. Forest Policy & Tribals. Impact of Industrialization & Urbanisation on Tribal Populations.

7.1 Problems of Exploitation & Deprivation of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes/ Other Backward Classes. Constitutional Safeguards for Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribes.

7.2 Contemporary Tribal Societies, Social Change: Impact of Modern Democratic Institutions, Welfare Measures & Development Programmes on Weaker Sections & Tribals.

7.3 The Concept of Ethnicity; Ethnic Conflicts and Political Developments; Regionalism and Demand for Autonomy; Unrest Among Tribal Communities; Pseudo-Tribalism. Social Change Among the Tribes – Colonial and Post-Independent India.

8.1 Impact of Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism, and Other Religions on Tribal Societies.

8.2 Tribe & Nation State – A Comparative Study – Tribal Communities in India, Other Countries.

9.1 History: Administration of Tribal – Areas, Plans, Policies, Programmes & Implementation. The Concept of Distribution, Primitive Tribal Groups, Special Programmes for Development. Role of N.G.O.s in Tribal Development.

9.2 Role of Anthropology – Tribal & Rural Development.

9.3 Contributions of Anthropology – Understanding Regionalism, Communalism, Ethnic &   Political Movements.

UPSC aspirants should consider preparing for Anthropology Optional in Chennai as it offers a multidisciplinary perspective on human society, culture, and evolution. It enhances understanding of social issues, fosters analytical thinking, and provides valuable insights into diverse communities, making it a relevant and rewarding subject for civil service examination preparation.

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